PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERNS
Influenza



Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Influenza

Influenza viruses are spread from person to person primarily through the coughing and sneezing of infected persons. The typical incubation period for influenza is 1–4 days, with an average of 2 days. Adults can be infectious from the day before symptoms begin through approximately 5 days after illness onset. Children can be infectious for > 10 days, and young children can shed virus for several days before their illness onset. Severely immunocompromised persons can shed virus for weeks or months.

Uncomplicated influenza illness is characterized by the abrupt onset of constitutional and respiratory signs and symptoms (e.g., fever, myalgia, headache, malaise, nonproductive cough, sore throat, and rhinitis). Among children, otitis media, nausea, and vomiting are also commonly reported with influenza illness. Respiratory illness caused by influenza is difficult to distinguish from illness caused by other respiratory pathogens on the basis of symptoms alone (see Role of Laboratory Diagnosis). 

Reported sensitivities and specificities of clinical definitions for influenza-like illness (ILI) in studies primarily among adults that include fever and cough have ranged from 63% to 78% and 55% to 71%, respectively, compared with viral culture. Sensitivity and predictive value of clinical definitions can vary, depending on the degree of co-circulation of other respiratory pathogens and the level of influenza activity. A study among older nonhospitalized patients determined that symptoms of fever, cough, and acute onset had a positive predictive value of 30% for influenza, whereas a study of hospitalized older patients with chronic cardiopulmonary disease determined that a combination of fever, cough, and illness of <7 days was 78% sensitive and 73% specific for influenza). However, a study among vaccinated older persons with chronic lung disease reported that cough was not predictive of influenza infection, although having a fever or feverishness was 68% sensitive and 54% specific for influenza infection.

Influenza illness typically resolves after 3–7 days for the majority of persons, although cough and malaise can persist for >2 weeks. Among certain persons, influenza can exacerbate underlying medical conditions (e.g., pulmonary or cardiac disease), lead to secondary bacterial pneumonia or primary influenza viral pneumonia, or occur as part of a coinfection with other viral or bacterial pathogens. Young children with influenza infection can have initial symptoms mimicking bacterial sepsis with high fevers, and < 20% of children hospitalized with influenza can have febrile seizures. Influenza infection has also been associated with encephalopathy, transverse myelitis, Reye syndrome, myositis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. 

The above information is from the CDC Influenza website.